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Anglo Nubian

Anglo Nubian Female
Anglo Nubian Female

Department of Agriculture New South Wales

Agdex 471/37
Goat breeds: Anglo-Nubian
Agfact A7.3.5, first edition 1985
Paul Greenwood, Livestock Officer
(Dairy Goats)
Division of Animal Protection
Camden

Origin

     The Anglo Nubian is a British breed whose origins can be tracked back to about 1850 when early endeavours to improve strains of British goats were made. British Does were crossed with bucks from India and Africa, The term Anglo-Nubian was first used about 1880 in Briton when the breeds were crossed. Anglo-Nubians were introduced into Australia in the mid 1950's. Mated does were imported until 1959 when Australia’s animal quarantine regulations prevented further goat imports except from New Zealand. Due to the small number of Anglo-Nubians which had entered Australia, grading-up using alpine breeds of does (that is Saanen, Toggenburg and British Alpine) has been necessary.

Breed Characteristics

     Anglo-Nubians are not heavy milk producers, although they have developed into a popular milking breed in Australia having a high average fat yield, usually over 4 percent. They tend to be less seasonal breeders and carry more flesh than Alpine breeds and are recognised as dual purpose (meat and milk) animals.
The Anglo-Nubian is the best suited of the dairy goat breeds in Australia to hot conditions.
They have been used in grading-up programs in many tropical countries to increase the milk and meat productions of local breeds.

     Anglo-Nubians are large, with does weighing at least 64kg the average height of the breed, measured at the withers, is 81 cm for does and 94 cm for bucks.
The ears are long, broad and pendulous. The face is convex and the forehead is particularly prominent. They have a fine tapering muzzle and flat nostrils. The backline may have a dip behind the withers and a gentle rise to the hips. The teats are often greater in length than other Alpine breeds. Anglo-Nubians which entered Australia did not have tassels, however they may be present in graded-up animals.
     Anglo-Nubians can be any colour or a combination of colours but should not show the full Swiss makings evident in the Toggenburg and British Alpine breeds.

The Anglo-Nubian Doe

     The high-producing Anglo-Nubian doe should also be an efficient reproducer. She should have a mild temperament, and appear alert and feminine.

     The udder should be well developed not fleshy, and have a collapsed appearance and soft texture after milking. It should be round and globular, and not pendulous or ‘split’ between halves. The udder should be carried high and well under the body. Good udder attachment is particularly important.

     The teats should be distinct from the udder and moderately sized. They should be squarely placed and point slightly forward. Does with abnormal teats and udders may prove difficult to milk and should not be used for breeding replacements.

     The jaw should be square (not overshot or undershot) and the teeth should be sound. The nostrils should be wide, the lips broad and the eyes set well apart. The neck should blend well into the shoulders and the chest should be broad and deep.

     The body should be well developed and have good height and depth. The barrel should be deep and not fat. The ribs should be well sprung. The backline should have a very slight dip behind the withers and a gentle rise to the hips, and show no sign of weakness.

     The Anglo-Nubian doe should stand and walk without dropping at the pasterns. The legs should be strong and straight without being thick, and be placed squarely under the body. The thighs should allow adequate room for the udder.

The Anglo-Nubian Buck

Anglo Nubian Male
Anglo Nubian Male

     The Anglo-Nubian buck’s ability should be gauged by his reproductive performance and the quality and performance of his offspring. The buck should have good conformation and depth of body, be masculine but not coarse in appearance and have vigour.

     The testicles should be of good size, well balanced and firm. The scrotum should be well placed and allow the testes to hang away from the body (not excessively).
Only bucks which are not carriers of the gene mannosidosis condition (a lethal neurological disease of new born Anglo-Nubian kids) should be used for breeding.

     Polled bucks are not generally used in breeding programs as offspring resulting from mating with polled does may be born either as intersex females or sterile males. If polled bucks are used, they should only be mated with horned does.

Further Information

     For breed standards contact the Dairy Goat Society of Australia, NSW Branch, GPO Box 4317, Sydney 2001, or for further information contact your nearest Department of Agriculture livestock officer (Dairying) or livestock officer (Dairy Goats).

References

C. Gall (ed.), Goat Production, Academic Press, London, 1981.

C. Devendra and M. Burns, Goat Production in the Tropics, revised edition, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Slough, 1983.

Acknowledgement

     The author thanks Mrs. N. Mathews of the Dairy Goat Society of Australia for her assistance in preparing this Agfact.

Editorial assistance: Kerry Hunter
Division of Agricultural Services

ISSN 0725-7759

British Alpine

British Alpine Female
The British Alpine Female

Department of Agriculture New South Wales

Agdex 471/37
Goat breeds: British Alpine
Agfact A7.3.3, first edition 1985
Paul Greenwood, Livestock Officer
(Dairy Goats)
Division of Animal Protection
Camden

Origin

     The British Alpine breed was developed in Britain by crossing local goats with Alpine goats imported from Switzerland in 1903.
The first British Alpines were brought to Australia in 1958 but because of quarantine regulations the number was small. Further British Alpines have more recently been imported from New Zealand, however they were related to the animals first introduced so added little to the gene pool. Grading-up using Saanen and Toggenburg does is widely practised.

Breed Characteristics

     British Alpine does are medium to heavy producers. Fat yield is usually between 3 and 4 per cent. British Alpines are best suited to temperate climates, and are reported top perform poorly in areas of high humidity.
The British Alpine is a tall, rangy and graceful dairy-type animal (that is, with a dished or straight facial line and wedge shaped body). The average height, measured at the withers is about 83cm for does and 95 for bucks. The breed is similar to the Saanen in structure and Toggenburg in markings.

     British Alpine are usually black in colour and the coat is generally short, fine and glossy, although bucks may have longer hair. They have white or cream markings on various parts of the body. These makings may fade with age. Horns and tassels may or may not be present at birth. The ears are erect and point slightly forward. The muzzle is generally squarish. British Alpines are very independent and tend to stay with their own breed. They are excellent foragers and have good jumping ability.

The British Alpine Doe

     The high-producing British Alpine doe should also be an efficient reproducer. She should have a docile temperament and appear alert and feminine.

     The udder should be well developed not fleshy, and have a collapsed appearance and soft texture after milking. It should be round and globular, and not pendulous or ‘split’ between halves. The udder should be carried high and well under the body. Good udder attachment is particularly important.

     The teats should be distinct from the udder and moderately sized. They should be squarely placed and point slightly forward. Does with abnormal teats and udders may prove difficult to milk and should not be used for breeding replacements.

     The jaw should be square (not overshot or undershot) and the teeth should be sound. The nostrils should be wide, the lips broad and the eyes set well apart. The neck should be long, slim of good depth and connect evenly with the withers and shoulders.

     The body should be well developed and have good height and depth. The barrel should be deep and not fat. The ribs should be well sprung. The chest should be wide and deep, and the barrel deep and well rounded without tending to be fat. There should be no marked dip behind the withers or the shoulders. The back should be level from the shoulders to the hips.

     The British Alpine doe should stand and walk without dropping at the pasterns. The legs should be clean, long and straight and placed squarely under the body. They should not be cow-hocked. The thighs should be thin, allowing adequate room for the udder.

The British Alpine Buck

British Alpine Male
The British Alpine Male

     The British Alpine buck’s ability should be gauged by his reproductive performance and the quality and performance of his offspring.
The buck should have good confirmation and depth of body, be masculine but not coarse in appearance and have vigour. He should not be heavy built.

     The testicles should be of good size, well balanced and firm. The scrotum should be well placed and allow the testes to hang away from the body (not excessively).

     Polled bucks are not generally used in breeding programs as offspring resulting from mating with polled does may be born either as intersex females or sterile males. If polled bucks are used, they should only be mated with horned does.

Further Information

     For breed standards contact the Dairy Goat Society of Australia, NSW Branch, GPO Box 4317, Sydney 2001, or for further information contact your nearest Department of Agriculture livestock officer (Dairying) or livestock officer (Dairy Goats).

References

C. Gall (ed.), Goat Production, Academic Press, London, 1981.

C. Devendra and M. Burns, Goat Production in the Tropics, revised edition, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Slough, 1983.

Editorial assistance: Kerry Hunter
Division of Agricultural Services

ISSN 0725-7759

Saanen

Saanen Female
The Saanen

Department of Agriculture New South Wales

Agdex 471/37
Goat breeds: Saanen
Agfact A7.3.4, first edition 1985
Paul Greenwood, Livestock Officer
(Dairy Goats)
Division of Animal Protection
Camden

Origin

     The Saanen is a Swiss breed which originated in the Saane Valley. It is now the most popular dairy goat breed in many countries, including Australia.
Saanens, first of the improved dairy goat breeds to be brought into Australia, were first imported in 1913 be the New South Wales Department of Agriculture. Two bucks and ten does from France and Switzerland were brought for the Departments Nyngan Experimental Farm. A further two bucks were imported from Canada by the Department in 1929, also for Nyngan farm which eventually disbanded in 1933. However, Nyngan Saanens have had a profound influence on the breed in Australia.

     After World War II, as well as the Department bringing a further five bucks and six does for its stud which was at Condobolin several private breeders also imported Saanens. Imports since the War have been of the British Saanen type.
Australian-bred Saanens are of world standard and have set many milk producing records. Saanens have been used in many parts of the world in grading-up local breeds.

Breed Characteristics

     Saanen does are heavy milk producers and usually yield between 3 and 4 per cent fat.
The Saanen is a typical dairy-type animal, it has a dished or straight facial line and a wedged shaped body. Saanen are of medium height when compared with other Alpine breeds in Australia. Does weigh at least 64kg. The average height measured at the withers, is about 81cm for does and 94cm for bucks.

     The coat is all white or all cream and the hair is generally short and fairly fine although some may have longer hair at the spine, hindquarters, or both. Horns may or may not be present at birth. The ears are generally pointed and erect and the head is usually lightly structured.
The breed is sensitive to excess sunlight and best performs in cooler conditions. The provision of shade is essential, and tan skin is preferable.
Saanens are usually very docile animals and like to keep to a routine so are well suited to machine milking. They respond quickly to affection.

The Saanen Doe

     The high-producing British Saanen doe should also be an efficient reproducer. She should have a docile nature and appear alert and feminine.

     The udder should be well developed not fleshy, and have a collapsed appearance and soft texture after milking. It should be round and globular, and not pendulous or ‘split’ between halves. A fairly flat udder sole is preferable. The udder should be carried high and well under the body. Good udder attachment is particularly important.

     The teats should be distinct from the udder and moderately sized. They should be squarely placed and point slightly forward. Does with abnormal teats and udders may prove difficult to milk and should not be used for breeding replacements.

     The jaw should be square (not overshot or undershot) and the teeth should be sound. The muzzle and nostrils should be wide, the lips broad and the eyes set well apart. The neck should be long, slim of good depth and connect evenly with the withers and shoulders.

     The body should be wedge-shaped, well developed and have good height and depth. The chest should be wide and deep. The ribs should be well sprung. There should be no marked dip behind the withers or shoulders. The back should be level from the shoulders to the hips and drop slightly to the tail. The Saanen doe should stand and walk without dropping at the pasterns. The legs should be clean, long and straight and placed squarely under the body. They should not be cow-hocked. The thighs should be thin, allowing adequate room for the udder.

The Saanen Buck

Saanen Male

     The Saanen buck’s ability should be gauged by his reproductive performance and the quality and performance of his offspring. The buck should have good confirmation and depth of body, be masculine but not coarse in appearance and have vigour.

     The testicles should be of good size, well balanced and firm. The scrotum should be well placed and allow the testes to hang away from the body (not excessively).

     Polled bucks are not generally used in breeding programs as offspring resulting from mating with polled does may be born either as intersex females or sterile males. If polled bucks are used, they should only be mated with horned does.

Further Information

     For breed standards contact the Dairy Goat Society of Australia, NSW Branch, GPO Box 4317, Sydney 2001, or for further information contact your nearest Department of Agriculture livestock officer (Dairying) or livestock officer (Dairy Goats).

References

C. Gall (ed.), Goat Production, Academic Press, London, 1981.

C. Devendra and M. Burns, Goat Production in the Tropics, revised edition, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Slough, 1983.

Acknowledgement

     The author thanks Mrs. N. Mathews of the Dairy Goat Society of Australia for her assistance in preparing this Agfact.

Editorial assistance: Kerry Hunter
Division of Agricultural Services

ISSN 0725-7759

Toggenburg

Toggenburg Female
Toggenburg Female

Department of Agriculture New South Wales

Agdex 471/37
Goat breeds: Toggenburg
Agfact A7.3.2, first edition 1985
Paul Greenwood, Livestock Officer
(Dairy Goats)
Division of Animal Protection
Camden

Origin

     Toggenburgs are a popular breed of dairy goat in Australia. It originated in Obertoggenberg, Switzerland and was the first officially recognised breed of dairy goats.

     Toggenburgs were the first of the Alpine breeds to reach Britain, arriving in England in 1884. Through crossbreeding, and selective breeding the British Toggenburg emerged as a superior breed. They were officially introduced into Australia by several private breeders, and the New South Wales State farm at Condobolin in the mid 1940s. These came from British Toggenburg stock and more were imported in small numbers in the following few years. Grading-up, using other Alpine breeds within Australia (Saanen and Toggenburg) is widely practised.

Breed Characteristics

     Toggenburgs do not generally produce as much milk as the Saanen breed but have consistently good udders and are known for their persistent milk production over long periods. Fat yield is usually between 3 and 4 percent.

     The breed performs at its best in cooler conditions and is reported to be the least suited of the dairy breeds to tropical conditions.
Toggenburgs are compact, robust, dairy type animal (that is, with a dished or straight facial line and wedge shaped body). They are usually slightly smaller than the other Alpine breeds. The does weigh at least 55kg. The average height, measured at the withers, is about 79 cm for does and 90 cm for bucks.
Colour varies from deep chocolate brown to pale fawn and the coat is generally short and fine though longer coats are common.
Toggenburgs have white or cream markings on various parts of their body. These making may fade with age. Horns and tassels may or may not be present at birth. The ears are erect and point slightly forward. The muzzle is generally broad.
Toggenburgs have a decided personality and character, are very alert and extremely active. As a breed, they tend to group together and respond well to training, so therefore adapt easily to machine milking.

The Toggenburg Doe

     The high-producing Toggenburg doe should also be an efficient reproducer. She should have a mild temperament and appear alert and feminine.

     The udder should be well developed not fleshy, and have a collapsed appearance and soft texture after milking. It should be round and globular, and not pendulous or ‘split’ between halves. The udder should be carried high and well under the body. Good udder attachment is particularly important.

     The teats should be distinct from the udder and moderately sized. They should be squarely placed and point slightly forward. Does with abnormal teats and udders may prove difficult to milk and should not be used for breeding replacements.

     The jaw should be square (not overshot or undershot) and the teeth should be sound. The muzzle and nostrils should be wide, the lips broad and the eyes set well apart. The neck should be long, slim of good depth and connect evenly with the withers and shoulders.

     The body should be wedge-shaped, well developed and have good height and depth. The shoulders should be well blended, the chest wide and deep and the barrel well-rounded but not ‘pot bellied’. The ribs should be well sprung. There should be no marked dip behind the withers or shoulders. The back should be level from the shoulders to the hips and drop slightly to the tail.

     The Toggenburg doe should stand and walk without dropping at the pasterns. The legs should be well boned, straight and parallel, not cow hocked. They should be placed squarely under the body. The thighs should be thin, allowing adequate room for the udder.

The Toggenburg Buck

Toggenburg Male
Toggenburg Male

     The Toggenburg buck’s ability should be gauged by his reproductive performance and the quality and performance of his offspring. The buck should have good confirmation and depth of body, be masculine but not coarse in appearance and have vigour. He should be strong though not heavily boned and have good firm legs.

     The testicles should be of good size, well balanced and firm. The scrotum should be well placed and allow the testes to hang away from the body (not excessively).

     Polled bucks are not generally used in breeding programs as offspring resulting from mating with polled does may be born either as intersex females or sterile males. If polled bucks are used, they should only be mated with horned does.

Further Information

     For breed standards contact the Dairy Goat Society of Australia, NSW Branch, GPO Box 4317, Sydney 2001, or for further information contact your nearest Department of Agriculture livestock officer (Dairying) or livestock officer (Dairy Goats).

References

C. Gall (ed.), Goat Production, Academic Press, London, 1981.

C. Devendra and M. Burns, Goat Production in the Tropics, revised edition, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Farnham Royal, Slough, 1983.

Acknowledgement

     The author thanks Mrs. N. Mathews of the Dairy Goat Society of Australia for her assistance in preparing this Agfact.

Editorial assistance: Kerry Hunter
Division of Agricultural Services

ISSN 0725-7759

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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